March 07, 2013

One Country Two Governments/ One Country Two Systems

Hong Kong gaw China kaw lawm ai raitim, Tinang amyu sha rai nga ai Hong Kong masha ni aq laksan Asuya hte laksan mungdan langai zawn, uphkang nga ai mungdan re. Miwa mungdan hta, grau n'na, hpaji masa, sut masa ring chying ai, Asia mungdan ni hta nga sat nga sa, grai tsaw hkra, nga lu ai mungdan langai re. Wunpawng sha ni  kasi yu la mai ai baw political system (self-autonomy) re, hti yu ga!

ေအာက္ပါေဆာင္းပါးမွာ တရုုတ္ျပည္ထဲမွာ ပထဝီဝင္နိုုင္ငံေရးအရ ပါဝင္ေသာ္လည္း ကိုုယ္ပိုုင္အုုပ္ခ်ဳ႔ပ္ေရး တင္းျပည့္ရသည့္ ေဟာင္ေကာင္အေၾကာင္းပါ။
One country, two systems

Hong Kong is part of China but it is like a totally different country. Hong Kong has its own government and its own political system. Hong Kong runs one of the most developed and effective government in Asia. Hong Kong people enjoy more freedom and live in high living standard than the rest of China and elsewhere in Asia. The government of Hong Kong is called the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Under “one country, two systems,” Hong Kong has its own political system, legal, military, economic and financial affairs, including commercial and cultural agreements with foreign countries, and enjoys "certain rights" in foreign affairs.

Hong Kong and Macau

“One country, two systems” is originally proposed in 1984 by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC) to apply the principle to Hong Kong in the negotiation with the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher over the future of Hong Kong when the lease of the New Territories (including New Kowloon) of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom was to expire in 1997. The same principle was proposed in the talks with Portugal over Macau.

The principle is that upon reunification, despite the practice of "socialism" in mainland China, both Hong Kong and Macau which were colonies of the UK and Portugal respectively, can have their established system under a high degree of autonomy for at least fifty years after reunification to a very large extent. What will happen after 2047 and 2049 (50 years after the return of Hong Kong and Macau, respectively) has never been stated in any public documents.

Hong Kong Basic Law Article 5 reads:

“The socialist system and policies shall not be practised in the HKSAR, and the previous capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years."

The establishment of these regions, called special administrative regions (SARs), is authorized by Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, which states that the State may establish SARs when necessary, and that the systems to be instituted in them shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in light of the specific conditions.

The SARs of Hong Kong and Macau were formally established on 1 July 1997 and 20 December 1999 respectively, immediately after the People's Republic of China (PRC) assumed the sovereignty over the respective regions.


The two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for their domestic affairs, including, but not limited to, the judiciary and courts of last resort, immigration and customs, public finance, currencies and extradition. Diplomatic relations and national defense of the two SARs are, however, the responsibility of the Central People's Government in Beijing.

Hong Kong continues using English common law. Macau continues using the Portuguese civil law system.


In Hong Kong, the system has been implemented through the Basic Law of Hong Kong, which serves as the "mini-constitution" of the region, and consistent with the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Similar arrangements are in place with Macau. Under the respective basic laws, the SARs have a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive, legislative and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication. They formulate their own monetary and financial policies, maintain their own currencies, formulate their own policies on education, culture, sports, social welfare system, etc. within the framework of the basic laws.

As stipulated by the basic laws, while the Central People's Government of the PRC is responsible for foreign affairs and defense in relation to the SARs, representatives of the Government of the SARs may participate, as members of delegations of the PRC, in diplomatic negotiations that directly affect the Regions, and in other international organizations or conferences limited to states and affecting the region. For those international organizations and conferences not limited to states, the SARs may participate using the names in the form of Hong Kong, China and Macau, China. As separate economic entities, both SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are members of the World Trade Organization. Hong Kong is also one of the member economies of APEC.

The basic laws also provide constitutional protection on various fundamental human rights and freedoms. Specifically, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is given a constitutional status through the basic laws.

Some international observers and human rights organizations have expressed doubts about the future of the relative political freedoms enjoyed in Hong Kong, and about the PRC's pledge to allow a high degree of autonomy in Hong Kong. They considered, for example, that the proposals in Article 23 of the Basic Law in 2003 (which was withdrawn due to mass opposition) might have undermined autonomy.

Nonetheless, the governments of the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong both consider the principle to have been successfully implemented, quoting official reports of both the United Kingdom and the United States.

Republic of China/Taiwan

This system has also been proposed by the PRC government for Taiwan, but the Republic of China (ROC) government has refused this suggestion (it has also been claimed that the system was originally designed for Taiwan). Special provisions for the preservation of the military in Taiwan have also been proposed. The concept of "One country, two systems" tends to be highly unpopular in Taiwan, with polls consistently showing 80% opposition and only about 10% support. All of the major parties in Taiwan, including those that lean toward Chinese reunification have come out strongly against "One country, two systems". Some proposed "One country, two governments" which was obviously opposed by the Chinese communist party, while some proposed the "one country" in "One country, two systems" should be ROC instead of PRC. One of the few Taiwanese who have publicly supported "one country, two systems" is novelist Li Ao.

Although the "One country, two systems" guarantees that Hong Kong's economic and political systems will not be changed for 50 years after the British handover in 1997, Mainland Affairs Council of the Republic of China has cited 169 cases in which they claim the PRC has breached the right of the people of Hong Kong to self-rule and severely intervened in the judicial system as well as freedom of speech.

Since the accession of Hu Jintao, the PRC has stopped promoting immediate reunification via "one country, two systems" (although it remains official policy). The "one country, two systems" framework was not mentioned in the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China. A new policy of gradual economic integration and political exchanges is now preferred: this new policy was emphasized during the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China as well as all subsequent major cross-strait exchanges.


The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, has expressed interest in using "one country, two systems" for governing Tibet. He has said that under such a system he would be willing to return to Tibet from exile. The government of China, however, considers this system inapplicable to Tibet because "Tibet is already a part of China" and fears that "one country, two systems" will be used as a gateway to formal Tibetan independence.

(Dawng Hkawn Bum စုုေဆာင္းတင္ျပသည္)


  1. Can you please share this me in world version? thanks

  2. Yes... sure, Apprenticeship!